A Centre that studies “federalism” focuses mainly on its institutional aspects but also explores, albeit selectively, its theory and history. Federalism cannot be construed as a sort of dogma; it has its own evolution. Federalism must also be able to adapt its theoretical framework and operational tools, where necessary, to ongoing changes.
Therefore, the flexibility and variety of federal models make it suitable for both a synchronic and a diachronic approach (from a comparative perspective). These issues can also guide the formulation of proposals for the present. Consider, for example, the abovementioned case of the US dual army for European defence, the formation of the political and institutional systems of the existing federal Unions, the institutionalisation of the “energy market” with the establishment of the ECSC and EURATOM, and the directions provided by the path from the (public and private) ECU to the euro for the development of SDRs.